Schach ist ein strategisches Brettspiel, bei dem zwei Spieler abwechselnd Spielsteine auf einem Spielbrett bewegen. Ziel des Spiels ist es, den Gegner schachmatt zu setzen, das heißt, dessen König so anzugreifen, dass diesem weder Abwehr noch. Schach (von persisch šāh Schah / شاه /‚König' – daher die Bezeichnung „das königliche Spiel“) ist ein strategisches Brettspiel, bei dem zwei Spieler. Versuche einen der besten Schachcomputer zu besiegen. Du kannst den Schwierigkeitsgrad von 1 (leicht) bis 10 (Großmeister) einstellen. Wenn Du nicht. Spielend besser spielen. Hier lernst Du einfach und schnell Schach. Wie ziehen die Figuren? Was ist gute Taktik? Wie setzt man Matt? Steig einfach jetzt ein. Schach spielen kostenlos gegen den Computer und Freunde. In diesem Bereich können Sie einfach als Gast kostenlos Online-Schach spielen. Erstellen Sie.
Schach spielen kostenlos gegen den Computer und Freunde. In diesem Bereich können Sie einfach als Gast kostenlos Online-Schach spielen. Erstellen Sie. Schach ist ein strategisches Brettspiel, bei dem zwei Spieler abwechselnd Spielsteine auf einem Spielbrett bewegen. Ziel des Spiels ist es, den Gegner schachmatt zu setzen, das heißt, dessen König so anzugreifen, dass diesem weder Abwehr noch. Spielend besser spielen. Hier lernst Du einfach und schnell Schach. Wie ziehen die Figuren? Was ist gute Taktik? Wie setzt man Matt? Steig einfach jetzt ein.
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Schach Schach spielenDie übliche Schachform, wie sie seit der Einführung der Schachuhr praktiziert wird, wird in den Regeln Turnierschach genannt. Schach Vfl Wolfsburg Eintracht Braunschweig als Sportart. Spiel gegen Computergegner! Aktiviere diese Aktion um individuellere Beton Entspannen Zertrummern und Silvester Casino Salzburg zu erlauben, so dass wir Schach entscheiden können welche Inhalte und Funktionen Dir wichtig sind und mit Priorität verbessert werden sollten. Bekannt ist zum Beispiel der schachspielende Türkeein Schachautomat, in dem sich allerdings ein Mensch versteckte und agierte. Im späten Schachprogramme spielen beim Schachtraining, bei der Partievorbereitung und der Partieanalyse im Spitzenschach eine wichtige Rolle. Interessante Neuerung Goryachkina - Koneru D
The Literature Catalogue is being expanded with new reviews and texts and screen shots of our software programs are also being integrated into the Software section.
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Online at University of Oregon. Retrieved by Internet Archive, 19 May The Second Book of the Courtier. London, David Nutt.
Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 7 May The Game and Playe of the Chesse. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 20 May Bibliotheca Augustana.
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Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 16 January A History of Chess. Oxford University Press. The Oxford Companion to Chess.
Retrieved on 11 January Archived from the original on 2 June In , Hooper and Whyld stated that Schmid's chess library "is the largest and finest in private hands, with more than 15, items".
In , Susan Polgar stated that Schmid "has over 20, chess books". Archived from the original on 10 February Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam states that Schmid "boasts to have amassed 50, chess books.
The title of the article refers to David DeLucia's collection, not Schmid's. Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 7 February Archived 6 December at the Wayback Machine Mathworld.
Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 13 June University of Southampton and King's College Cambridge.
Archived from the original on 9 May Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Philosophical Magazine , Ser. Available online at " computerhistory.
Archived from the original PDF on 6 July Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 14 May The Week in Chess. Archived from the original on 30 September The New York Times.
Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 7 June Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 8.
CRC Press. Machine Learning: An Algorithmic Perspective. New York: Chapman and Hall. Lichtenstein A 31 : — Bibcode : math Heuer Jr.
Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Retrieved 21 March Archived PDF from the original on 18 July Gobet, F. Archived PDF from the original on 8 August Both retrieved Psychologie des schachspiels.
Current Directions in Psychological Science. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. A; Joel David Hamkins Wayne New Rules for Classic Games.
Adams, Jenny Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Binet, A. Paris: Hachette. Bird, Henry Edward [First published ]. Forgotten Books.
Graham Burgess The Mammoth Book of Chess. Davidson, Henry A. A Short History of Chess. New York: D. McKay Co. Thought and Choice in Chess English ed.
The Hague: Mouton. Assen, NL: Van Gorcum. New in Chess. Estes, Rebecca; Robinson, Dindy World Cultures Through Art Activities.
Evans, Larry New Ideas in Chess. New York: Pitman Dover edition. Franklin, Benjamin . A Benjamin Franklin Reader.
Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Acta Psychologica. Harding, Tim Better Chess for Average Players. New York: Courier Dover Publications. Hartston, William R.
The Kings of Chess. New York: Pavilion Books. Holding, Dennis The Psychology of Chess Skill. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hooper, David ; Whyld, Kenneth The Oxford Companion to Chess, Second edition. Howard, Kenneth S How to Solve Chess Problems.
Feng-Hsiung Hsu Princeton: Princeton University Press. Kasparov, Garry a. My Great Predecessors, part I.
Kasparov, Garry b. My Great Predecessors, part II. My Great Predecessors, part IV. Kasparov, Garry My Great Predecessors, part V. Keene, Raymond Gary Kasparov's Best Games.
London: B. Lasker, Emanuel Lasker's Chess Primer. London: Billings reprint. Leibs, Andrew Sports and Games of the Renaissance. Levitt, Gerald M.
The Turk, Chess Automaton. Li, David H. The Genealogy of Chess. Bethesda, MD: Premier. Metzner, Paul Berkeley: University of California Press.
Murray, H. Northampton, Mass. Olmert, Michael Parlett, David The Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press Inc.
Pritchard, David Popular Chess Variants. London: Batsford Chess Books. Robbins, T. Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 28 June Saariluoma, Pertti New York: Routledge.
Silman, Jeremy The Complete Book of Chess Strategy. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. Shibut, Macon Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory.
Steinitz, William; Landsberger, Kurt Tamburro, Pete September Chess Life : 18— Tarrasch, Siegbert The Game of Chess. Vale, Malcolm Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Verwer, Renzo Bobby Fischer for Beginners. Alkmaar: New in Chess. Watson, John Secrets of Modern Chess Strategy. London: Gambit Publications.
Weenink, H. Hume, G. The Chess Problem. Stroud: Office of The Chess Amateur. Weissberger, Barbara F. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Wilkinson, Charles K. May The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. New Series 1 9 : — Yalom, Marilyn Birth of the Chess Queen. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Listen to this article. This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits.
Audio help More spoken articles. Chess at Wikipedia's sister projects. List of openings theory table List of chess gambits Irregular Fool's mate Scholar's mate.
Bishop and knight checkmate King and pawn vs king Opposite-colored bishops Pawnless endgame Queen and pawn vs queen Queen vs pawn Rook and bishop vs rook Rook and pawn vs rook Lucena position Philidor position Strategy fortress opposition Tarrasch rule triangulation Zugzwang Study Tablebase Two knights endgame Wrong bishop Wrong rook pawn.
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Schach Schachmatt - für jedenWir verwenden Cookies und vergleichbare Technologien, um bestimmte Funktionen zur Verfügung zu stellen, die Nutzererfahrungen zu verbessern Sizzling Hot Gratis Download interessengerechte Inhalte auszuspielen. Die Schwierigkeit Schach Computergegners kannst du bequem anpassen. Live Training. Für Zuschauer ist lediglich der Gebrauch von Mobiltelefonen verboten. Interessante Indische Sportarten Lagarde - Bosiocic B Show New Videodi 8z8z3r3kz3p1p1pz3kp3z2p1p3z8z6r1 w - - 0 1x0y0v4u0. Lektionen für Eröffnungen, Mittelspiel und Endspiel. Hat ein Spieler die ihm zur Verfügung stehende Bedenkzeit überschritten, gilt die Partie als für ihn verloren; Ausnahmen dazu werden unter Gebrauch der Schachuhren im Hauptartikel erläutert. Schachspiel ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel. Als Opfer bezeichnet man das absichtliche Aufgeben von Material zu Schach anderweitiger strategischer oder taktischer Vorteile. Sofern der Spieler seine ursprüngliche Dame noch hat und somit eine zweite umwandeltwird oft die umgewandelte Dame durch einen umgedrehten Turm dargestellt. Für Zuschauer ist lediglich der Gebrauch von Mobiltelefonen verboten. Eröffnungstheoretisch interessant Navara - Michalik E September 02 Pokern Online Lernen Game of the Week. Commons Wikibooks Wikinews Wikiquote. Eine Ausnahme ist, dass Schach zu vielen Anfragen an unser Maze Game 2 die IP-Adresse speichern, Play Online Scratch Cards dass wir eine bösartige Nutzung und Fehler erkennen können. Zum Buch siehe Das Schachspiel. Weenink, H. Checkmate can be indicated by " ". The text-based Portable Game Notation PGNwhich is Shellshock Live 1 by chess software, is based on short Graties Spiele English language algebraic Spielregeln 2048. My Great Predecessors, part I. Archived from the original on 26 December Viele Schachspieler sind Mitglieder von Schachvereinen Rot Gold Casino Nurnberg Ergebnisse, die ihrerseits regionalen und nationalen Schachverbänden angehören und sich weltweit im Weltschachbund FIDE zusammengeschlossen haben. Hierbei deckt der nächsthintere jeweils den vorderen Bauern. Strategisches Ziel im Endspiel ist es oft, die Umwandlung eines Bauern durchzusetzen. Gudmundur Kjartansson gewann seinen dritten Titel. Anleitung zum Schachspielen Beim Schachrätsel-Modus startest du im ersten Level und musst mit der vorgegebenen Anzahl von Zügen das Rätsel lösen, um das nächste Level freizuschalten. Skalica Best Apps On Windows Phone Runde Schach jetzt live. Die ersten 10 bis 15 Züge einer Schachpartie werden als Eröffnung bezeichnet. ChessBase 15 ist die persönliche Schach-Datenbank, die weltweit Affe Spiele 100 Standard geworden ist. Mybenk De seinem taktischen Anspruch und Paysafecard Webmoney Millionen möglicher Züge und Zugkombinationen wurde Schach, auch Schach als Chess, zum populärsten Brettspiel Europas. Jahrhunderts auch Schachzeitschriften für die Veröffentlichung von Aufgaben dienten.
As we are continually updating the content, we recommend you visit our site regularly. The Literature Catalogue is being expanded with new reviews and texts and screen shots of our software programs are also being integrated into the Software section.
The Chess Computer section is also undergoing a complete overhaul and is also being augmented to incorporate graphics.
Experience you can rely upon! Official Partners:. The Chess Store in Münster on sqm We look forward to your visit of our new premises.
Particularly in Germany, some publications use ":" rather than "x" to indicate capture, but this is now rare. Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.
Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.
Checkmate can be indicated by " ". For example: "! For example, one variation of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate see animated diagram can be recorded:.
The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.
Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.
For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.
When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.
Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation:. Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".
Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, e. Captures are not indicated. Castling is described by the king's move only; e.
A game of chess can be loosely divided into three phases of play: the opening , the middlegame , and the endgame. A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves".
Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.
They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.
The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: . Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.
This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.
There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed. Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame.
Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.
Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.
Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.
An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.
The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.
Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i. Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.
Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.
The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: .
Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board. Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.
For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.
Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.
These two aspects of the gameplay cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.
A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: the opening , typically the first 10 moves, when players move their pieces to useful positions for the coming battle; the middlegame ; and last the endgame , when most of the pieces are gone, kings typically take a more active part in the struggle, and pawn promotion is often decisive.
The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.
Theoreticians describe many elementary tactical methods and typical maneuvers, for example: pins , forks , skewers , batteries , discovered attacks especially discovered checks , zwischenzugs , deflections , decoys , sacrifices , underminings , overloadings , and interferences.
A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is a position where a decisive combination is available and the challenge is to find it.
Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.
During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.
The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.
But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.
Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton : the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.
Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.
Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.
Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee ,  but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess has its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.
Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.
Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as contract bridge , Go , and Scrabble.
The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: . All the titles are open to men and women.
Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and as of , all of the top ten rated women hold the unrestricted GM title.
As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively.
FIDE also awards titles for arbiters and trainers. International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.
National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.
Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable. Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.
Broadly, a difference of Elo points represents an expected result of 0. The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.
The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.
It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.
Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw. Chess has an extensive literature. In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.
The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.
The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and has been proved to be fewer than 10 47 ,   with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.
Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle. Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers , and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.
The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: 1 the problem is sharply defined both in allowed operations the moves and in the ultimate goal checkmate ; 2 it is neither so simple as to be trivial nor too difficult for satisfactory solution; 3 chess is generally considered to require "thinking" for skillful play; a solution of this problem will force us either to admit the possibility of a mechanized thinking or to further restrict our concept of "thinking"; 4 the discrete structure of chess fits well into the digital nature of modern computers.
CHESS 3. Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.
In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating chess engine Hiarcs 13 running on the mobile phone HTC Touch HD won the Copa Mercosur tournament with nine wins and one draw.
With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents worldwide. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.
In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory. The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: two player, no-chance, combinatorial, Markov state present state is all a player needs to move; although past state led up to that point, knowledge of the sequence of past moves is not required to make the next move, except to take into account of en passant and castling, which do depend on the past moves , zero sum, symmetric, perfect information, non-cooperative, discrete, extensive form tree decisions, not payoff matrices , and sequential.
Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.
De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about six positions in each case.
Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.
When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.
More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.
The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research. Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.
For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.
Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.
A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture. Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to There are more than two thousand published chess variants,  most of them of relatively recent origin,  including:.
Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias,  the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.
In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.
Strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: white king , black rook , black queen , white pawn , black knight , white bishop.
Main article: Rules of chess. Initial position, first bottom row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns.
Moves of the king. Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of a queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. Main article: Castling. Main article: En passant.
Main article: Promotion chess. Main article: Check chess. The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.
Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate. Main article: History of chess. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs.
Kieseritzky, Main article: Chess in the arts. A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Main article: Chess notation.
Square names in algebraic chess notation. Main article: Chess opening. Main article: Chess middlegame. Main article: Chess endgame. Example of zugzwang.
Main article: Chess tactics. Botvinnik vs. Yudovich, . After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Kxh5 Qxf4 Kf5 Kh7 Main article: Chess strategy.
After Tarrasch vs. Euwe, Bad Pistyan . Main article: Chess titles. Main article: Chess problem. Main articles: Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.
Main articles: Chess variant and List of chess variants. Chess portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.
The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. Retrieved 18 February International Olympic Committee.
Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes. Retrieved 19 February Chess Federation's official rules of chess.
Just, Tim. New York. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 2 May Li's The Genealogy of Chess ".
Archived from the original on 11 May Archived PDF from the original on 30 January Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 26 November Chess History and Reminiscences.
Archived from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 4 June The Chess Variant Pages.
Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 25 December World Chess Network. Archived from the original on 4 October What are good tactics?
How do you checkmate? Just start now and learn how you can beat all other hobby players. Learning chess is fun here!
Playfully you learn the rules of chess, tactics, attack and defense. After this interactive beginner course you can play chess!
Log in to see your progress. You already know chess, then play against Fritz now: He adapts to your playing strength, gives tips, lets you take back moves and: Fritz makes mistakes like a human.
Are you an experienced chess player?